Translated by Ian Johnston, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada.
Revised Edition 2019


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[Odysseus ends his story; the Phaeacians collect gifts and store them on a ship; Odysseus takes his leave and goes on board, where he sleeps during the voyage to Ithaca; the Phaeacians land in Ithaca, unload the goods, place Odysseus sleeping on the shore, and leave; Poseidon complains to Zeus about the Phaeacians’ transporting Odysseus safely home; Poseidon decides to turn the Phaeacian ship to stone and put up a mountain range around their city; the Phaeacians are amazed at the transformation of their ship; Alcinous recalls his father’s prophecies; the Phaeacians sacrifice to Poseidon; Odysseus wakes up on Ithaca but does not recognize the place; Athena visits him in the form of a young man; she tells him he is in Ithaca; Odysseus fabricates a story about his identity; Athena transforms herself into a woman, reveals her identity, and points out the features of the island; the two of them plan how Odysseus will take his revenge on the suitors; Athena transforms his appearance so that he looks like an impoverished old beggar; she tells him to seek out the man who tends his swine; Athena leaves for Sparta to fetch Telemachus.]

Odysseus paused. All Phaeacians sat in silence,
motionless and spellbound in the shadowy hall.
Then Alcinous again spoke up and said to him:

“Odysseus, since you’re visiting my home,
with its brass floors and high-pitched roof, I think
you won’t leave here and go back disappointed,
although you’ve truly suffered much bad luck.
And now I’ll speak to all men present here,
those who in this hall are always drinking
the council’s gleaming wine and enjoying                                      10
the songs the minstrel sings. I tell you this.
Clothing for our guest is packed already,                                           [10]
stored in a polished chest inlaid with gold,
as well as all the other gifts brought here
by Phaeacia’s counsellors. But come now,
let’s give him a large tripod and cauldron,
each one of us. We can repay ourselves—
we’ll get the people to provide the cost.
It’s too expensive for one man to give
without receiving any money back.”                                                 20

Alcinous spoke. And they agreed with what he said.
Then they all left to go back home and get some rest.

But as soon as rose-fingered early Dawn appeared,
they hurried to the ship and loaded on the bronze,
which strengthens men. Strong and mighty Alcinous                                   [20]
went in person through the ship and had the gifts
stowed beneath the benches, where they would not hinder
any of the crew, as the rowers plied their oars.
Then they went back to Alcinous’s home to feast.

On their behalf, forceful and mighty Alcinous                                         30
sacrificed a bull to Zeus, god of the dark cloud
and son of Cronos, who rules over everything.
Once they had burned pieces of the thigh, they enjoyed
a splendid banquet. Among them Demodocus,
the godlike minstrel revered by all Phaeacians,
sang a song of celebration. But Odysseus
kept on turning round toward the blazing sunlight,
eager to see it set—he so wanted to return.                                                 [30]
Just as a man longs for supper, when all day long
a pair of wine-dark oxen pull a well-made plough                                  40
through fallow land for him, and as the sun goes down,
the sight delights him—now he can prepare a meal,
for both his knees are weary when he moves—that’s how
Odysseus rejoiced to see the sunlight disappear.
He spoke up at once, addressing the Phaeacians,
men who love the oar, especially Alcinous,
saying these words:

                                       “Lord Alcinous, of all men
most renowned, pour out your libations now,
and send me safely off. Farewell to you!
Now everything my dear heart once desired                                   50     [40]
has come about—an escort and these gifts,
marks of friendship. May the heavenly gods
make me content with them. When I get back,
may I find my excellent wife at home,
with all my family safe. As for you,
may you stay here and make a happy life
for the wives you married and your children.
May gods grant you success of every kind,
and may no evil things afflict your people.”

Odysseus spoke. They all approved of what he said,                              60
and ordered that their guest should be escorted off,
because he spoke so well. Mighty Alcinous
addressed the herald, saying:

                                                        “Pontonous,                                     [50]
stir the mixing bowl, and serve out the wine
to all those in the hall, so once we’ve prayed
to Father Zeus, we may send off our guest,
back to his native land.”

                                                             Alcinous finished speaking.
Pontonous mixed wine sweet as honey, then served it
to all of them, moving to everyone in turn,
and, from where they sat, they each poured out libations                     70
to all the immortal gods who hold wide heaven.
Lord Odysseus stood up, placed a two-handled cup
in Arete’s hands, and spoke winged words to her:

“Fare well, queen Arete, through all your years,
until old age and death arrive, the fate                                              [60]
of every mortal being. I’m leaving now.
But in this house may you have much delight
from your own children and your people,
and from Alcinous, the king.”

                                                        Lord Odysseus spoke,
then moved across the threshold. Mighty Alcinous                                80
dispatched a herald to conduct him to the sea
and his fast ship. Arete sent slave girls with him.
One carried a freshly laundered cloak and tunic.
She told a second one to follow on behind
escorting the large trunk. Another female slave
brought red wine and bread. Once the group had reached the ship            [70]
beside the sea, the noble youths escorting him
immediately took all the food and drink on board
and stowed them in the hollow ship. They spread a rug
and a linen sheet on the deck inside the ship,                                          90
at the stern, so Odysseus could have a peaceful sleep.
He went aboard, as well, and lay down in silence.
Each man sat in proper order at his oarlock.
They loosed the cable from the perforated stone.
Once they leaned back and stirred the water with their oars,
a calming sleep fell on his eyelids, undisturbed
and very soothing, a sensation much like death.                                         [80]
Just as four stallions yoked together charge ahead
across the plain, all running underneath the lash,
and jump high as they gallop quickly on their way,                                100
that’s how the stern part of that ship leapt up on high,
while in her wake the dark waves of the roaring sea
were churned to a great foam, as she sped on her path,
safe and secure. Not even wheeling hawks in flight,
the swiftest of all flying things, could match her speed,
as she raced ahead, slicing through the ocean waves,
bearing on board a man whose mind was like a god’s.
His heart in earlier days had undergone much pain,                                   [90]
as he moved through men’s wars and suffered on the waves.
Now he slept in peace, forgetting all his troubles.                                   110

When the most splendid of the morning stars appeared,
which always comes to herald light from early Dawn,
the fast sea-faring ship was nearing Ithaca.
Now, in that land, Phorcys, the Old Man of the Sea,
has his harbour.(1) Two jutting headlands at its mouth
drop off on the seaward side, but on the other,
slope down to the cove and keep the place protected
from massive waves whipped up by stormy winds at sea.
In there well-timbered ships, once they reach the inlet,
can ride without an anchor. At the harbour head,
there is an olive tree with lengthy pointed leaves,                                   120    [100]
and close beside it is a pleasant shady cave,
sacred to the nymphs whom people call the Naiads.(2)
Mixing bowls and jars of stone are stored inside,
and bees make honey there. The cave has long stone looms
where those nymphs weave cloth with a deep sea-purple dye,
an amazing thing to see. In there, too, are springs
which never cease to flow. It has two entrances—
one, which faces North Wind, is the one people use                                        [110]
to go inside; the other, which faces South Wind,                                     130
is sacred—human beings may not go in there,
for the pathway is confined to the immortals.

They rowed in here, a place they knew about before.
Those rowers’ arms had so much strength that half the boat,
which was moving quickly, was driven up on shore.
Once the crew had clambered from that well-built ship
onto dry land, first they carried off Odysseus,
lifting him out of the hollow ship still wrapped up
in the linen sheet and splendid blanket, placed him,
down on the sand, fast asleep, then brought ashore                                140
the gifts Phaeacia’s noblemen had given him,                                                   [120]
thanks to the goodwill of powerful Athena,
when he was setting out for home. They put these gifts
against the trunk of the olive tree, in a pile,
some distance from the path, in case someone came by,
before Odysseus could wake up, stumbled on them,
and robbed him. Then the Phaeacians set off for home.

But the Shaker of the Earth had not forgotten
those threats he once made against godlike Odysseus.
So he asked Zeus what plan he had in mind:

                                                                  “Father Zeus,                            150
the immortal gods will honour me no more,
for these men pay me no respect at all,
these Phaeacians, who, as you well know,                                               [130]
are my descendants.(3) For I clearly said
Odysseus should suffer much misfortune
before he made it home. I’d not rob him
of his return completely, once you’d made
that promise and confirmed it with a nod.
But these men carried him, while still asleep,
over the sea in their swift ship, set him                                            160
in Ithaca, and gave him countless gifts—
bronze and gold and piles of woven clothing,
more than Odysseus ever would have got
at Troy, if he’d come safely back, bringing
his fair share of battle trophies with him.”

Cloud-gatherer Zeus then gave Poseidon this reply:

“Mighty Earthshaker, what strange things you say!                           [140]
The gods aren’t treating you with disrespect.
To dishonour the oldest and the best
would be hard to bear. But if any man,                                             170
seduced by his importance and his power,
fails to honour you somehow, it’s up to you
to take vengeance later. Do what you want,
what gives your heart delight.”

                                              Earthshaker Poseidon
then answered Zeus:

                                    “Lord of the Dark Cloud,
I would have quickly done as you’ve just said,
but I was afraid you might be angry,
and that I wanted to avoid. But now,
I wish to strike a blow at those Phaeacians,
at their splendid ship, as it sails back home,                                  180    [150]
after its trip across the misty seas,
so they will stop and never more provide
an escort carrying mortal beings.
Then all around their city I’ll throw up
a massive mountain range.”

                                                  Cloud-gatherer Zeus
then answered him and said:

                                                          “Brother, listen
to what my heart thinks best—when all of them
are in the city gazing at that boat
speeding on its way, turn it into stone
close to the shore, a rock that looks just like                                  190
a racing ship—all men will be amazed.
Then raise a ring of mountains round their town.”

When Earthshaker Poseidon heard these words, he left
and went to Scheria, home of the Phaeacians.                                                  [160]
There he waited. As their sea-faring ship approached,
moving quickly on her course, Earthshaker came up
and turned it into stone. With the palm of his hand
he hit it once and from below froze it in place.
Then Poseidon went away. Long-oared Phaeacians,
men famous for their ships, spoke to one another—                                200
their words had wings. Looking at the man beside him,
one of them would say:

                    “Who has transformed our ship
out at sea as she was racing homeward,
and in plain sight of all?”

                                                                    That’s what they said.                                 [170]
But they did not understand why this had happened.
Then Alcinous addressed them all and said:

The prophecies my father used to make
so long ago have come to pass. He claimed
we were going to rouse Poseidon’s rage,
because we escort all men in safety.                                                210
He claimed that one day, as a splendid ship
of the Phaeacians was returning home,
after a convoy on the misty seas,
Poseidon would strike her and then throw up
a huge mountain range around our city.
That’s what the old man said. And now all this
is taking place. But come, let all of you
attend to what I say. You must now stop                                                 [180]
escorting strangers when a mortal man
comes to our city. And let’s sacrifice                                                220
twelve choice bulls as offerings to Poseidon,
so he’ll take pity and not ring our city
with a lofty mountain range.”

                                                                       Alcinous spoke.
They were all afraid, so they prepared the bulls,
and the counsellors and leaders of Phaeacians,
standing by the altar, prayed to lord Poseidon.

Meanwhile, brave Odysseus, asleep in his own land,
woke up. He did not recognize just where he was.
He had been away so long, and Pallas Athena,                                            [190]
Zeus’s daughter, had cast a mist around him,                                          230
to make him hard for people to identify,
so she could tell him every detail, while his wife,
his townsfolk, and his friends would not know who he was,
until the suitors’ crimes had all been paid in full.
And so all things seemed unfamiliar to their king,
the long straight paths, the harbour with safe anchorage,
the sheer-faced stony cliffs, the trees in rich full bloom.
So he jumped up and looked out at his native land.
He groaned aloud and struck his thighs with both his palms,
and then cried out in sorrow:

                                                       “Where am I now?                     240   [200]
Whose strange country have I come to this time?
Are they violent, unjust, and cruel,
or do they welcome strangers? Do their minds
respect the gods? And all this treasure here,
where do I take that? Where do I go next?
I wish I’d stayed with the Phaeacians there.
I could have visited another king
who would have welcomed me, then sent me off
on my way home. I’ve no idea now
where to put this wealth. I won’t leave it here,                              250
in case somebody robs me and removes it
as his spoils. Alas! All those Phaeacians,
those counsellors and leaders, weren’t so wise                                       [210]
or just—they led me to a foreign land.
They said they’d bring me to bright Ithaca,
but that’s not what they’ve done. I pray that Zeus,
god of suppliants, who watches everyone
and punishes the man who goes astray,
will pay them back. But come, I’ll count these gifts
and check them over, just in case these men                                  260
in their hollow ship have carried away
some property of mine.”

                                                            After saying this,
Odysseus examined his gifts—lovely tripods,
cauldrons, gold, and splendid clothing. It was all there.
Then, overwhelmed with longing for his native land,
he wandered on the shore beside the crashing sea,                                     [220]
with many cries of grief. But then Athena came,
moving close to him in the form of a young man,
someone who herded sheep, but with a refined air
that marks the sons of kings. She wore a well-made cloak,                     270
a double fold across her shoulders, and sandals
on her shining feet. In her hand she gripped a spear.
Odysseus, happy to catch sight of her, came up
and spoke to her—his words had wings:

                                                                            “My friend,
since you’re the first one I’ve encountered here,
my greetings to you, and may you meet me
with no evil in your mind. Save these goods,                                     [230]
and rescue me. For I’m entreating you,
the way I would a god, and I’ve come here
begging you, like a dear friend at your knee.                                  280
Tell me the truth, so I can understand—
What country is this? Who are these people?
Is it some sunny island or a cape
jutting from the mainland out to sea?”

Athena, goddess with the gleaming eyes, replied:

“Stranger, you must be a fool, or else come
from somewhere far away, if you must ask
about this land. Its name is not unknown—
not at all—many men have heard of it,
all those who live in regions of the dawn                                         290   [240]
and rising sun, as well as all who dwell
towards the gloomy darkness in the west—
a rugged place, not fit for herding horses,
yet not too poor, although not very wide.
There are countless crops and wine-bearing grapes.
There is no lack of rain or heavy dew,
a fine land for raising goats and cattle.
There are all sorts of trees and water springs
that last throughout the year. And so, stranger,
Ithaca is well known, even in Troy,                                                   300
a long way from Achaean land, they say.”

Athena spoke, and much-enduring lord Odysseus                                          [250]
felt great joy, happy to learn of his ancestral lands
from what Pallas Athena said, daughter of Zeus,
who bears the aegis. So he spoke winged words to her.
He did not tell the truth, but left some things unsaid,
always thinking devious thoughts inside his chest:

“I’ve heard of Ithaca, even in Crete,
far across the sea. Now I have come here
with these goods of mine. When I ran away,                                   310
I left even more there with my children.
I killed a dear son of Idomeneus,
the swift Orsilochus—in spacious Crete                                                  [260]
he was the fastest runner of all those
who have to work to earn the bread they eat.(4)
He wished to steal the spoils I’d won at Troy,
for which my heart had gone through so much pain,
facing men’s wars and perils on the sea,
because I would not gratify his father
and serve as his attendant there in Troy,                                         320
but led another group of my own men.
As he was coming home, back from the fields,
I lay in wait for him with my companions,
close to the road. There with my bronze-tipped spear
I struck him. Black night concealed the heavens,
and no one noticed us or was aware                                                         [270]
I took his life. Once my sharp bronze killed him,
I ran off to a ship without delay,
offered prizes to some fine Phoenicians,
as much as they could wish, entreating them,                               330
pleading to be taken off to Pylos
and left there, or else to lovely Elis,
where Epeians rule. Much against their will,
the power of the winds drove them off course.
They did not wish to cheat me, but were blown
away from there and sailed in here at night.
We quickly rowed into this anchorage.
Although we needed food, we never thought                                          [280]
of dinner—we just stretched out where we were.
I was so tired, sweet sleep fell over me.                                             340
They took my goods out of the hollow ship
and piled them right beside me on the shore.
Then they went back on board and sailed away
for bustling Sidon, leaving me behind
with all these troubles in my heart.”

                                                                                         Odysseus finished.
Bright-eyed Athena smiled and stroked him with her hand.
Then she changed herself into a lovely woman,
tall and very skilled in creating splendid things.
She spoke to him—her words had wings:                                                          [290]

                                                “Any man,
or even a god who ran into you,                                                         350
would have to be a cunning charlatan
to surpass your different kinds of trickery.
You are bold and make complicated plans.
You love deceit. Now, back in your own land,
it does not seem that you intend to stop
your lies or making up those artful tales,
which you love from the bottom of your heart.
But come, let’s no longer talk about this,
for we both understand what shrewdness means.
Of all men you’re the best in making plans                                     360
and giving speeches, and among all gods
I’m well known for subtlety and wisdom.
Still, you failed to recognize Athena,                                                   [300]
daughter of Zeus, who’s always at your side,
looking out for you in every crisis.
Yes, I made all those Phaeacians love you.
Now I have come to weave a scheme with you
and hide these goods Phaeacian noblemen
offered as you were setting out for home,
thanks to my plans and what I had in mind.                                    370
I’ll tell you what Fate has in store for you.
You’ll find harsh troubles in your well-built home.
Be patient, for you must endure them all.
Don’t tell anyone, no man or woman,
you have returned from wandering around.
Instead, keep silent. Bear the many pains.
When men act like savages, do nothing.”                                                [310]

Resourceful Odysseus then answered her and said:

“Goddess, it’s difficult for any man
to recognize you when you come to him,                                          380
even if he’s truly wise, for you appear
in any shape you wish. But I know well
that in years past you have been kind to me,
when we sons of Achaea fought in Troy.
But when we’d ransacked Priam’s lofty town
and sailed off in our ships and then some god
scattered the Achaeans, I never saw you,
daughter of Zeus. I did not notice you
coming aboard our ship to keep me safe
from danger. So I kept on wandering,                                                390   [320]
my heart always divided in my chest,
until the gods delivered me from harm.
Then, in the rich land of the Phaeacians,
your words encouraged me, and you yourself
led me to their city. Now I beg you,
in your father’s name, for I don’t believe
I’ve come back to sunny Ithaca. No.
I’m at a loose end in some other land,
and you’re attempting to confuse my mind.
So tell me truly if I have arrived                                                         400
on my dear native soil.”

                                                              Then Athena,
the bright-eyed goddess, answered him:

                                 “That heart in your chest                                           [330]
always thinks this way. And that’s the reason
I can’t abandon you. You’re so polite,
astute, and cautious. Any other man
who’d just come back from wandering around
would have been eager to run home to see
his wife and children. But you’re in no rush
to learn about or hear of anything,
before you can observe your wife yourself.                                       410
She’s still living in her home, as before—
her nights and days always end in sorrow,
and she weeps. As for me, I had no doubts,
for my heart always knew you’d get back home,
although your comrades would all be destroyed.                               [340]
But you should know I had no wish to fight
against Poseidon, my father’s brother,
who bears anger in his heart against you,
enraged that you destroyed his dear son’s eye.
But come, I’ll demonstrate to you this land                                     420
is Ithaca, so you’ll be reassured.
This anchorage here belongs to Phorcys,
the Old Man of the Sea. At the harbour
stands the long-leafed olive tree. Beside it
is the pleasant, shadowy cave, sacred
to those nymphs the people call the Naiads.
This, you must know, is the arching cavern
where you made many sacrificial gifts                                                [350]
to those same nymphs to grant you what you asked.
And there is forested Mount Neriton.”                                              430

As the goddess said these words, she dispersed the mist.
Once the land was visible to him, Odysseus,
who had endured so much, overjoyed to see it,
kissed the fertile ground. Then, stretching out his arms
towards the nymphs, he prayed:

                                                   “You Naiad nymphs,
Zeus’s daughters, I thought I’d never catch
a glimpse of you again. Now I greet you
with loving prayers. I’ll give gifts, as well,
as I have done for you in former days,
if Zeus’s daughter who awards the spoils                                         440
will in her goodness let me stay alive
and help my dear son grow into a man.”                                                   [360]

Athena, the bright-eyed goddess, then said to him:

“Be brave, and don’t weigh down your heart with this.
Now, let’s not wait, but put away these goods
in some dark recess of this sacred cave,
where they’ll stay safely stored inside for you.
And then let’s think about how all these things
may turn out for the best.”

                                                      After saying this,
goddess Athena went in the shadowy cave                                                450
and looked around for hiding places. Odysseus
brought in all the treasures—enduring bronze and gold
and finely woven clothes, gifts from the Phaeacians.
He stored these carefully, and Pallas Athena,                                                   [370]
child of aegis-bearing Zeus, set a rock in place
to block the entranceway.

                                              Then the two of them
sat down by the trunk of the sacred olive tree
to think of ways to kill those insolent suitors.
Athena, bright-eyed goddess, was the first to speak:

“Resourceful Odysseus, son of Laertes,                                             460
and child of Zeus, think how your hands may catch
these shameless suitors, who for three years now
have been lording it inside your palace,
wooing your godlike wife and offering her
their marriage gifts. She longs for your return.
Although her heart is sad, she feeds their hopes,                               [380]
by giving each man hints he may prevail.
But her mind is filled with other matters.”

Resourceful Odysseus then answered her and said:

“Goddess, if you had not told me all this,                                         470
I would have shared the fate of Agamemnon,
son of Atreus, death in my own home.
Come, weave a plan so I can pay them back.
Stand in person by my side, and fill me
with indomitable courage, as you did
when we loosed the bright diadem of Troy.
I pray, goddess with the glittering eyes,
that you are with me now as eagerly
as you were then. If so, then I would fight                                               [390]
three hundred men, if you, mighty goddess,                                  480
in your heart are willing to assist me.”

Gleaming-eyed goddess Athena then answered him:

“You can be certain I will stand by you.
I won’t forget you when the trouble starts.
I think the brains and blood of many suitors
who consume your livelihood will spatter
this wide earth. But come, I will transform you,
so that no one here will recognize you.
I’ll wrinkle the fine skin on your supple limbs,
change the dark colour on that head of hair,                                   490
and dress you in rags that would make you cringe                            [400]
to see on anyone. As for your eyes,
so striking up to now, I’ll make them dim.
To all those suitors you’ll appear disgusting,
and to the wife and son you left at home.
Then you must go first to see the swineherd,
who tends your pigs. He’s well disposed to you
and loves your son and wise Penelope.
You’ll find him keeping his swine company
where they feed by Corax Rock, near the spring                              500
of Arethusa, drinking its dark stream
and eating lots of acorns, which make pigs                                              [410]
grow rich in fat. Stay there and sit with him.
If you have questions, just ask the swineherd.
I’ll go to Sparta, land of lovely women,
and there, Odysseus, I will summon back
your dear son, Telemachus, who has gone
to spacious Lacedaemon, to the home
of Menelaus, to hear news of you,
to learn if you are still alive somewhere.”(5)                                      510

Resourceful Odysseus then answered her and said:

“Why did you not tell him, since in your mind
you know all things? What was your intention—
that he’d run into hardships on his trip
across the restless seas, while other men
were eating up his livelihood?”

                                                                                          Athena,                                       [420]
goddess with the glittering eyes, then said to him:

“Don’t worry in your heart about your son.
I sent him off myself, so he might earn
a well-known reputation going there.                                              520
He’s not in trouble, but sits there in peace,
in the home of the son of Atreus,
with countless splendid things surrounding him.
It’s true some young men out in a black ship
are lying in ambush, keen to kill him
before he gets back to his native land,
but I don’t think that’s what will come about.
Before that happens, earth will cover up
the many suitors who consume your goods.”

As she said this, Athena touched him with her staff.                               530
She wrinkled the fine smooth skin on his supple limbs                                   [430]
and took the dark hair from his head. His arms and legs
she covered with an old man’s ancient flesh and dimmed
his eyes, which earlier had been so beautiful.
She dressed him in different clothes—a ragged cloak,
a dirty tunic, tattered, dishevelled, and stained
with stinking smoke. Then around his shoulders she threw
a large hairless hide from a swift deer and gave him
a long staff and shabby leather pouch, full of holes,
with a twisted strap.

                                                   When the two of them                            540
had made their plans, they parted, and Athena went
to Lacedaemon to bring back Odysseus’ son.                                               [440]



(1) Phorcys: an ancient god of the sea who produced large number of monster children. The title “Old Man of the Sea,” the name given to Proteus in Menelaus’s account of his adventures in Egypt ( in Book 4), is applied here to Phorcys as well and elsewhere (in Book 24) to the sea god Nereus, father of the fifty Nereids, one of whom was Thetis, mother of Achilles. [Back to Text]

(2) Naiads: nymph goddesses of fresh water, one of three classes of water nymphs (the others being the Nereids, nymphs of the sea, and the Oceanids, nymphs of the Ocean). [Back to Text]

(3) The Phaeacians, according to legend, stem from Pheax, a son of Poseidon, or from Nausithous, father of Alcinous, also a son of Poseidon. [Back to Text]

(4) In the Iliad Idomeneus, leader of the forces from Crete, is a major ally and a senior leader among the Achaean troops fighting against the Trojans. [Back to Text]

(5) Lacedaemon: Another name for Sparta. [Back to Text]


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