Zoological Philosophy
by 
J. B. Lamarck

 

[This translation, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, Canada, (now Vancouver Island University) is in the public domain, and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is acknowledged, released September 1999]

 

Table of Contents

 

First Part

Considerations of the Natural History of Animals, Their Characteristics, Their Interrelationships, Their Organic Structure, Their Distribution, Their Classification and Their Species

 

 

Chapter Eight

 

Concerning the natural order of animals and the structure we must give to their general distribution so that it conforms to the very order of nature.

 

I have already remarked (Chapter V) that the essential aim of a distribution of animals must not limit itself, on our part, to the possession of a list of classes, genera, and species. This distribution must at the same time display, in its structure, the means most favorable to the study of nature, something which is most relevant to make us understand her progress, her means, and her laws.

 

However, I do not hesitate to point out that our general distributions of animals up to the present day have been given a structure which reverses the very order nature followed in giving rise successively to her living productions. Thus, in moving, according to custom, from the most complex towards the most simple, we make knowledge of the progress in the composition of organic structure more difficult to grasp, and we put ourselves in the position of perceiving less easily both the causes of this progress and the interruptions here and there in it.

 

When we realize that something is useful, even that it is indispensable for the goal we propose and that there is nothing inconvenient about it, we must hurry to make use of it, even though it is contrary to custom.

 

Such is the case concerning the structure which we must give to the general disposition of animals.

 

Moreover, we will see that it is not at all an indifferent matter to begin this general distribution of animals at either one of its extremities and that what should come at the start of the order cannot be simply a matter of our choice.

 

The custom which was introduced and which people have followed up to the present day of putting at the head of the animal kingdom the most perfect animals and to finish this kingdom by the least perfect and the simplest in organic structure owes its origin, in part, to the tendency which makes us always give precedence to the objects which we find striking, which please us, or which interest us the most, and, in part, to the fact that we have preferred to move from the best known towards the least known.

 

At the time when people began to occupy themselves with the study of natural history, these considerations were, no doubt, very persuasive. But they ought to yield now to scientific needs and particularly to the need to facilitate our progress in the understanding of nature.

 

With respect to animals which nature has succeeded in producing, so numerous and so varied, if we cannot boast of knowing exactly the true order which nature followed in bringing them successively into existence, what I am going to reveal is probably very close to that order. Reason and all the knowledge we have acquired encourage this probability.

 

In fact, if it is true that all living bodies are productions of nature, we cannot refuse to believe that she could produce them only successively, not all at once at a specific moment. Now, if she created them one after the other, there is reason to believe that she began exclusively with the simplest and did not produce the most complex organic structures (in both the animal and plant kingdoms) until the end,

 

Botanists first gave zoologists the example of the true arrangement we should give to a general distribution in order to represent the very order of nature. For they formed the first class of plants with the acotyledonous or agamous plants, that is, with the structurally simplest plants, the most imperfect in every respect, in a word, with those which had no cotyledons, no determinable sex, no vessels in their tissues, plants which are, in fact, composed only of cellular tissue more or less modified according to different extensions.

 

What the botanists have done with respect to plants, we should finally do with the animal kingdom, not only because nature herself points in that direction and reason demands it, but also because the natural order of classes, according to the growing complexity in organic structure, is much easier to determine among the animals than it is with respect to plants.

 

While this order will better set down the order of nature, it will at the same time make the study of objects much easier, will improve our understanding of the organic structure of animals, the progress in its complexity from class to class, and will demonstrate even better the affinities existing between the different degrees in the make up of animal organization and the external difference which we most frequently use to characterize the classes, orders, families, genera, and species.

 

I add to these two considerations (whose basis one cannot seriously call into question) the fact that if nature, incapable of making organic structures which survive for ever, had not had the means of giving these bodies the capacity of reproducing themselves with other individuals which resembled them, replaced them, and perpetuate the race by the same means, she would have been forced to create directly all the races or rather she would have been able to create only one race in each organic order, one for the simplest and most imperfect animals and one for the simplest and most imperfect plants.

 

In addition, if nature had not been capable of the active processes of organization with the ability to make that very organic structure more and more complex, by increasing the mobile energy of fluid movement and thus organic movement, and if she had not preserved through reproduction all the progress in the composition of organic structures and all the acquired improvements, she should assuredly never have produced this multitude of infinitely varied animals and plants, so different from each other in the condition of their organic structures and capacities.

 

Finally, she would not have been able to create right at the first the most eminent animal faculties, for they do not arise except with the help of very complex organic systems. Nature had to prepare gradually the means of bringing into existence such organic systems.

 

Thus, to establish, with respect to living bodies, the state of things which we observe, the only thing nature had to produce directly (that is, without the combination of any organic action) was the simplest organic bodies, whether animals or plants. And she still reproduces these in the same way, every day, in favorable places and seasons. Now, by giving to these bodies which she herself created the capacity to feed themselves, to grow, to multiply, and to preserve each time the improvements they acquired in their organic structure and, finally, by passing on these same capacities to all the individuals produced by organic reproduction, over time, given the enormous diversity of always changing circumstances, the living bodies of all the classes and every order were, through these means, produced one after the other.

 

In considering the natural order of animals, the very marked gradation which exists in the growing complexity of their organic structure and the number as well as the improvement of their faculties is far from being a new truth, for even the Greeks were able to perceive it (1). But they were not able to lay bare the principles and proofs, because people then lacked the knowledge necessary to establish them.

 

Now, in order to facilitate the knowledge of the principles which have guided me in the exposition which I am about to make concerning this order of animals, and to better render perceptible this gradation which we observe in the complexity of their organic structure, from the most imperfect among them, who are at the head of the series, right up to the most perfect which conclude the series, I have divided into six very distinct stages all the styles of organic structure which we have recognized in the entire extent of the animal ladder.

 

Of these six stages, the four first ones include the animals without vertebrae, and hence the first ten classes of the animal kingdom, according to the new order which we are going to follow; the two last stages include all the vertebrate animals, and thus the four (or five) final classes of animals.

 

With the assistance of this method, it will be easy to study and to follow the march of nature in the production of the animals she has brought into existence, to distinguish, throughout the whole extent of the animal ladder, the progress attained in the complexity of organic structure, and to verify throughout the precision of the distribution or the appropriateness of the assigned ranks, by examining the known characteristics and facts of organic structure.

 

This is the way in which for several years in my lessons at the Museum I set out the invertebrates, always proceeding from the most simple towards the most complex.

 

In order to make the arrangement and the totality of the general series of animals more distinct, let us first present a table of the fourteen classes dividing the animal kingdom, limiting ourselves to a very simple exposition of their characteristics and the stages of organic structure which they include.

 

 

Table of the Distribution and Classification of Animals,

Following the order which conforms most closely to the order of nature

 

INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

 

Classes

 

I. THE INFUSORIANS
Amorphous animals reproducing by fission or budding; gelatinous bodies, transparent, homogeneous, contractile and microscopic; no rayed tentacles or rotary limbs; no special organ, not even for digestion.

 

II POLYPS
Budding, gelatinous regenerating bodies, without any internal organ other than an alimentary canal with only one opening.  Terminal mouth, surrounded by radiating tentacles or furnished with ciliated and radiating organs. The majority form compound animals.

1st Stage

No nerves, no vessels, no special internal organs other than for digestion

 

 

 

 

---------------------------------------------------

III RADIATES
Free suboviparous, with a regenerating body, lacking a head, eyes, articulated limbs, and having in its parts a radiating arrangement, a mouth underneath.

 

IV WORMS
Suboviparous, with a soft regenerating body, not undergoing any metamorphosis, and never having eyes, nor articulated limbs nor a radiating arrangement in its interior parts.

2nd Stage

No knotty (ganglionic) longitudinal chord; no vessels for circulation; few interior organs other than those for digestion.

 

 

---------------------------------------------------

V INSECTS
Oviparous, undergoing metamorphoses and having, in the perfect state, eyes in the head, six articulated limbs, and tracheae which extend throughout; a single fertilization during a lifetime.

 

VI ARACHNIDS
Oviparous, with always articulated limbs and eyes in the head, not undergoing any metamorphosis; limited tracheae for respiration; rudimentary circulation; several fertilizations during a lifetime.

3rd Stage

Nerves ending in a knotty (ganglionic) longitudinal chord; respiration by aerated gills; circulation is absent or imperfect.

 

 

---------------------------------------------------

VII CRUSTACEANS
Oviparous, having articulated bodies and limbs; crustaceous skin, eye in the head, and most frequently four antennae; respiration by gills; a knotty (ganglionic) longitudinal chord.

 

VIII ANNELIDS
Oviparous, with elongated and annulated body; no articulated limbs; rarely eyes; respiration by gills; a knotty (ganglionic) longitudinal chord.

 

IX CIRRIPEDS
Oviparous, having an articulated mantle and limbs whose skin is horny, no eyes; respiration by gills, a knotty (ganglionic) longitudinal chord.

 

X MOLLUSKS
Oviparous, soft body, no articulation in its limbs. with a variable mantle; respiration by gills diversified in their form and their situation; no spinal chord, no knotty (ganglionic) longitudinal chord, but nerves ending in a brain.

4th Stage

Nerves ending either in a brain or in a longitudinal ganglionic chord; respiration by gills; arteries and veins for circulation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-------------------------------------------------------------VERTEBRATE ANIMALS--------------------------------------------------

Classes

XI FISH
Oviparous and without teats; complete and constant respiration by gills; outline of two or four limbs; fins for movement; no hair or feathers on the skin.

 

XII REPTILES
Oviparous and without teats; incomplete respiration, most often by lungs which exist all the time or in later age; four limbs, or two, or none; no hair or feathers on the skin.

5th Stage

Nerves ending at a brain which does not fill the skull cavity; heart with one ventricle; cold blood.

 

 

 

---------------------------------------------------

XIII BIRDS
Oviparous and without teats; four articulated limbs, of which two are shaped into wings; respiration entirely by adhering pierced lungs; feathers on the skin.

 

XIV MAMMALS
Viviparous and with teats; four articulated limbs or only two; respiration entirely by lungs not pierced through to the exterior; hair on some parts of the body.

6th Stage

Nerves ending in a brain which fills the cranial cavity; heart with two ventricles; warm blood.

 

 

 

 

Such is the table of the fourteen classes established among the known animals, and arranged following the order which most closely approximates the order of nature. The arrangement of these classes is such that that we will always be forced to conform to it, even if we refuse to adopt the lines of separation which form them, because this arrangement is based on the analysis of the organic structure of the living bodies with which it deals. This consideration, of the first importance, establishes the affinities which exist among the objects making up each division and the rank of each one of these groups in the entire series.

 

People will never find solid reasons for changing this distribution in its entirety, for reasons which I am going to reveal. But we will be able to make changes in the details, and above all in the divisions subordinate to the classes, because the affinities between objects comprising the sub-divisions are more difficult to determine and assume a more arbitrary character.

 

Now, in order to make better understood how much this arrangement and distribution of animals conform to the very order of nature, I am going to reveal the general series of known animals, divided into its principal divisions, proceeding from the simplest towards the most complex, in accordance with the reasons indicated above.

 

My purpose, in this exposition, will be to put the reader in a position to recognize the rank, in the general series, occupied by the animals which, in the course of this work, I have often had occasion to refer to and to spare the reader the trouble of having to go to other works of zoology for that information.

 

However, I will give here only a simple list of genera and only of the principal divisions; but this list will be sufficient to demonstrate the extent of the general series, its arrangement conforming the most with the order of nature, and the indispensable placement of classes, orders, and thus, perhaps, of families and genera. We understand well that it is in the good works of zoology which we possess that we must study the details of all the objects mentioned in this list, because I have not taken that into consideration in this work.

 

General Distribution of Animals
Forming a series conforming to the very order of Nature

 

Invertebrate Animals

 

They do not have any vertebral column and consequently have no skeleton; those which have points of support for the movement of parts have them under their teguments. They lack a spinal chord and present a great diversity in the complexity of their organic structure.

 

First Stage of Organic Structure

 

No nerves, no longitudinal ganglionic chord, no vessels for circulation, no respiratory organs; no other special interior organ except for digestion.

 

[The Infusorians and Polyps]

 

THE INFUSORIANS
(First Class of the animal kingdom)

 

Fissiparous animals, amorphous, with gelatinous bodies, transparent, homogeneous, contractile and microscopic; no radiating tentacles; no rotary appendages; no special organ in the interior, not even for digestion.

 

Observations

 

Of all the known animals, the infusorians are the most imperfect, the simplest in organic structure, and those which possess the fewest capacities. It is certain they have no ability to feel.

 

Infinitely small, gelatinous, transparent, contractile, almost homogeneous, and incapable of having any special organ because of the excessively weak consistency of their parts, the infusorians are really only the rudiments of animal life.

These frail animals are the only ones which do not carry out digestion in order to nourish themselves and which, in fact, feed only by absorption through the pores of their skin and by an interior saturation.

 

In this matter they resemble the plants, which live only by absorption and carry out no digestion and whose organic movements operate only through external stimuli. But the infusorians are irritable and contractile, and they go through sudden movements which they can repeat several times in a row, something which characterizes their nature as animals and fundamentally distinguishes them from plants.

 

Table of Infusorians

 

First Order: Naked Infusorians

They lack external appendages

Monads

--------

Volvox

Bursaria

Proteus

Colpoda

Vobrio

 

 

Second Order: Infusorians with Appendages

They have projecting parts, like hairs, types of horns or a tail

Cercaria
Trichocerca
Trichoda

 

Remarks. The monad, and especially the one which is called Monas termo, is the most imperfect and simplest of known animals, because its body, which is extremely small, displays only a gelatinous and transparent point, but it is contractile. This animal therefore must be considered the one at which the series of animals, organized according to nature, begins.

 

POLYPS
(Second Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Gemmiparous animals, with gelatinous regenerating bodies, without any interior organ except an alimentary canal with a single opening.  Terminal mouth surrounded by radiating tentacles or furnished with ciliated or rotatory organs.  The majority adhere to each other, communicate together by their alimentary canal, and thus form composite animals.

 

Observations

 

We saw in the infusorians infinitely small, frail animalcules without consistency, without a shape unique to their class, without any organs at all, and consequently without a mouth and a distinct alimentary canal.

 

In the polyps, the simplicity and imperfection of the organic structure, although still very noticeable, are less great than in the infusorians. Organic structure has clearly made some progress, for already nature has given the animals of this class a consistently regular form; already they are furnished with a special organ for digestion, and consequently with a mouth, the entry to their alimentary sack.

 

If we picture for ourselves a small elongated body, gelatinous, very irritable, having at its upper extremity a mouth furnished either with rotatory organs or radiating tentacles which serves as the entry point to an alimentary canal which has no other opening, we will get an image of the polyp.

 

If we add to this idea the notion of the adherence of several of these small bodies, living together and participating in a common life, we will understand the most general and the most remarkable fact concerning these animals.

 

Since the polyps have neither nerves for feeling nor special organs for respiration nor vessels for the circulation of their fluids, they are the more imperfect in their organic structure than the animals which are going to follow.

 

Table of Polyps

 

First Order: Rotifer Polyps

They have around their mouths ciliated and rotatory organs

Urceolaria
Brachionus (?)

Vorticella

 

Second Order: Polyps in Polyparies

They have around their mouths radiating tentacles and are fixed in a polypary which does not float on the oceans.

 

(1) Membranous or Horny polypary, without a distinct outer crust

Crostatella
Plumatella
Tubularia
Sertularia

Cellairia
Flustra
Cellelpora
Botryllus

 

 (2) Polypary with a horny axis, covered with a crust

Acetabula
Corallina
--------
Sponge

Alcyon
Antipata
Gorgona

 

(3) Polypary with an axis and partly or entirely stony, and covered over with a bark like crust

Isis
Coral

 

(4) Polypary entirely stony without a crust

Tubipora
Lunulites
Ovulites
Siderolites
Orbulites
Alveolites
Ocellairia
Eschara
Retepora
Agricia

Pavonia
Meandrina
Astrea
Madrepora
Caryophylllia
Turbinolia
Fungia
Cyclolites
Dactylopora
Virgularia

 

Third Order: Floating Polyps

 

A polypary free, elongated, floating in water, and having a horny or bony axis covered with a skin common to all the polyps; radiating tentacles around the mouth.

Funiculina
Veretillum
Pennatula

Enerinus
Umbellularia

 

Fourth Order: Naked Polyps

 

They have radiating often multiple tentacles at their mouths; they do not form polyparies.

Pedicellaria
Coryne
Hydra

Zoantha
Actinia

 

Second Stage of Organic Structure

 

No longitudinal ganglionic chord, no vessels for circulation; a few special internal organs (either tubes or pores taking in water or species of ovaries) other than those for digestion.

 

[The Radiates and Worms]

 

RADIATES

(Third Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Subgemmiparous animals, free or wandering; with regenerating bodies, a radiating arrangement of parts, both internal and external, and compound organ of digestion; lower mouth, simple or multiple.  No head, no eyes, no articulated limbs; a few internal organs other than those for digestion.

 

Observations

 

Here is the third line of classic separation which it is useful to draw in the natural distribution of animals.

 

Here we find entirely new forms which all nonetheless have affinities with a common similar type, as follows: the radiating arrangement of the parts, both interior and exterior.

 

These are no long animals with an elongated body, an upper terminal mouth, usually established in a polypary with a great number of them living together, each participating in a communal life. These are animals with a more complex organic structure than in the polyps, simple, always free, with a design which is unique to them, and generally orienting themselves in an inverted position.

 

Almost all the radiata have tubes drawing in water which appear to be aquatic trachaea. And in a great number we find special bodies which look like ovaries.

 

In a Memorandum which I have just heard read in the assembly of professors at the Museum, I learn than a wise observer, Doctor Spix, a Bavarian physician, has discovered in the star fishes and sea anemones the apparatus of a nervous system.

 

Doctor Spix claims to have observed that in the red star-fish, under a membrane made up of tendons (like a tent) there is suspended on the stomach a reticular structure made up of whitish nodules and threads and, in addition, at the origin of each ray, two nodules or ganglia which communicate with each other by a thread and from which other threads leave and go to parts close by; among others there are two very long threads which run through the full length of the ray and supply the tentacles.

 

According to the observations of this learned man, we see in each ray two nodules, a small extension of the stomach (coecum), two hepatic lobes, two ovaries and trachaeal canals.

 

In the sea-anemones, Dr. Spix observed at the base of these animals, below the stomach, a few pairs of nodules, arranged around a centre, which communicate with each other by cylindrical threads and which send out other threads to the upper parts. Moreover, he saw there four ovaries surrounding the stomach, from the base of which canals leave which, after joining up, open into a lower point of the alimentary canal.

 

It is astonishing that such a complex organic apparatus has escaped the attention of all those who have examined the organic structure of these animals.

 

If Doctor Spix was not imagining things in in what he believed he saw and if he was not wrong in attributing to these organisms a nature and functions different from what is appropriate to them (something which has happened to so many botanists who believed they saw male and female organs in almost all the cryptogram plants), then the consequences are as follows:

 

(1) It is not in the insects that we must establish the commencement of a nervous system;

 

(2) This system must be considered as rudimentary in the insects, radiates, and even in the sea-anemone, the last genre of polyps;

 

(3) This is not a reason why all polyps should possess the rudiments of this system, in the same way that it does not follow that all reptiles are equipped with bills just because some have them.

 

(4) Finally, the nervous system is no less a special organ, not shared by all living bodies. For not only is it irrelevant in plants but it it is not even present in all the animals. As I have made known, it is impossible that the infusorians are furnished with a nervous system and assuredly polyps in general are not capable of having one. Thus, we would look for it in vain in the hydras, which nonetheless belong to the last order of polyps, the one closest to the radiates, since it includes the sea anemones.

 

Thus, whatever the basis for the facts cited above, the points which I present in this work on the successive formation of the different special organs remain valid no matter at what point in the animal scale each of these organs originates. And it is always the case that the abilities which the organs provide for the animal do not begin to operate until the organ which provides them come into existence.

 

Table of Radiates

 

First Order: Soft Radiates

 

Gelatinous body; soft skin, transparent, lacking articulated spines; no anus.

Stephanomia
Lucernaria
Physsophora
Physalia
Velella
Porpita

Pyrosoma
Beroe
Aequorea
Rhizostoma
Medusa

 

Second Order: Echinoderm Radiates

 

Opaque skin, crustaceous or coriaceous, furnished with retractable tubercules or articulates spines on tubercules, and pierced with holes in a series.

 

(1) Stellerides. Skin not irritable, but mobile; no anus

Ophiura
Asteria

 

(2) Echinoids. Skin not irritable, not mobile; an anus

Clypeaster
Cassidites
Spatangus
Ananchytes

Galerites
Nucleoites
Sea urchin

 

(3) Fistulides. Elongated body, an irritable and mobile skin; an anus

Holothuria
Sipunculus

 

Remarks. The sipunculus are animals very close to worms. However their known affinities with the holothuria have led them to be placed among the radiates, with which they no longer share characteristics. Consequently, they must come at the end.

 

In general, in a really natural distribution, the first and the last genera of classes are those in which the classical characteristics are less pronounced. Because they come at the limits of the class and the lines of separation are artificial, these genera must display to a lesser extent than the others the characteristics of their class.

 

WORMS

(Fourth Class in the Animal Kingdom)

 

Suboviparous animals, with soft elongated bodies, without a head, eyes, limbs, or bunches of setae; without circulation and with a complete intestinal canal (one with two openings).  Mouth made up of one or several suckers.

 

Observations

 

The general form of worms is very different from that of the radiates. Their mouths, always a sucker, has no similarity to those of the polyps, which display only an aperture accompanied by radiating tentacles or rotatory organs.

Worms have, in general, an elongated body, very slightly contractile, although very soft, and their intestinal canal is not limited to a single opening.

 

In the fistulid radiates, nature began to abandon the radiating form of the parts and to give animal bodies an elongated shape, the only one which might lead to the goal which nature set for herself.

 

Once nature created the worms, she is going to tend from that point on to establish the pattern of the paired symmetry of parts, which she could not attain except by an articulated design. But in the class of worms, which is ambiguous to some extent, she has only sketched out a few traits.

 

Table of Worms

 

First Order: Cylindrical Worms

Dragoneau
Fiaria
Proboscidea
Crino
Ascaris
Fissula
Trichocephaus

Cucullanus
Strongyius
Scolex
Caryophyllacus
Tentacularia
Echinorhyncus

 

Second Order: Bladder Worms

Bicorn
Hydatis

 

Third Order: Flat Worms

Taenia
Linguatula

Lingula
Fasciola

 

 

Third Stage of Organic Structure

 

Nerves ending in a longitudinal ganglionic chord; respiration by aerated trachaea; no circulation (or imperfect).

 

[The Insects and Arachnids]

 

INSECTS

(Fifth Class of the animal kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals, undergoing metamorphoses, able to have wings, and possessing, in the perfect state, six articulated limbs, two antennae, two faceted eyes, and a horny skin.  Respiration by aerated trachaea which extend to all the parts; no system of circulation; two distinct sexes; one single reproductive act in a lifetime.

 

Observations

 

Having reached the insects, we find among the extremely numerous animals which this class includes a very different order of things from the classes which we have have encountered in the animals of the four preceding classes.  Moreover, in the place of modulations in the progressive complexity of the organic structure in animals, once we arrive at the insects, in this matter we have made quite a considerable leap.

 

Here, for the first time, the animals examined from the outside show us a true head which is always distinct, very remarkable eyes (although still very imperfect), articulated limbs arranged in two rows, and the symmetrical form of paired and opposing parts which nature will use from this point on right up to and including the most perfect animals.

 

When we move to the interior of insects, we see in addition a complete nervous system, consisting of nerves which end a a longitudinal ganglionic chord.  Although complete, this nervous system is still very imperfect.  The area where the sensations meet appears very fractured, and the senses themselves are few and very obscure.  Finally, we see in the interior of the insect a real muscular system and distinct sexes, which, however, can provide only a single fertilization (as with the plants).

 

True, we do not yet find a circulatory system, and it is necessary to go higher in the animal chain to find this improvement in organic structure.

 

The property of all insects is having wings in their perfect state, so that those which lack them have been deprived only by an abortion which has become habitual and constant.

 

In the table which I am going to present, the genera have been reduced to a number considerably lower that that of the genera which people have made from the animals in this class.  Interest in studying the subject and the simplicity and the clarity of the method seemed to me to demand this reduction, which is not going to harm at all an understanding of the objects.  To use all the particular details which one could seize upon in the characteristics of animals and plants in order to multiply genera to infinity is, as I have already said, to clutter up and obscure science instead of serving it.  It makes the study of science so complicated and difficult, that it would become impossible to practice it, except for those who wished to dedicate their entire lives to learning the immense nomenclature and the minute characteristics used to make distinctions among animals.

 

Table of Insects

 

A.   SUCKING INSECTS

 

Their mouths display a sucker furnished or lacking a sheath

 

First Order: Apterous Insects

 

A proboscis with two valves and articulated in three places, containing a sucking organ with two bristles  The wings have usually aborted in both sexes; legless larvae; immobile nymph in a cocoon.

Flea

 

Second Order: Dipterous Insects

 

A non-articulated proboscis, straight or with an elbow, sometimes retractile.  Two bare wings membranous and veined; two balancers; vermiform larvae, most often without feet 

Hippobosca (Horse Fly)
Oestrus
-------
Stratiomys
Syrphus
Anthrax
Fly
-------
Stomoxe
Myopa
Conops

------
Empis
Bombylus
Asilus
Taon
Rhagio
-----
Cousin
Tipula
Simulium
Bibio

 

Third Order: Hemipterous Insects

 

Sharp articulated beak, curved under the chest serving as a sheath for a sucker with three bristles.  Two wings hidden under membranous elytra; larvae with six feet; the nymph moves and eats.

Dorthesia
Cochinea
Psylla
Aphids
Aleyrodes
Thrips
------
Cicada
Fulgora
Tettigonia
------
Scutellera

Pentatoma
Bed Bugs
Coraeus
Reduvius
Hydrometra
Gerris
------
Nepa
Notonecte
Nancoris
Corixa

 

Fourth Order: Lepidopterous Insects

 

A two-part sucker, lacking a sheath, like a tubular proboscis, and folded up as a spiral when inactive.  Four membranous wings, covered with colour scales like flour.  The larvae have eight to sixteen limbs, inactive chrysalis.

 

(1) With subulate or setaceous antennae

Petrophorus
Orneodes
Cerastoma
Tinea
Noctua
Phalaena

Alucita
Adella
Pyralis
------
Hepialus
Bombyx

 

(2) Antennae swollen somewhere along their length

Zygoena
Butterfly

Sphinx
Sesia

 

(B) BITING INSECTS

 

Their mouths display mandibles, most often accompanied by jaws

 

Fifth Order: Hymenopterous Insects

 

Mandibles and a three-sectioned sucker more or less extended, the base of which is enclosed in a short sheath.  Four bare wings (membranous, veined, unequal); in the female the anus is equipped with a sting or apparatus for boring; immobile nymph.

 

(1) Females equipped with a sting in the anus

Bee
Monomelites
Nomads
Eucera
Andrena
-----
Wasp
Polistes

Ant
Mutilla
Scolia
Tiphia
Bembex
Crabro
Sphex

 

(2) Females equipped with a boring apparatus in the anus

Chrysis
Oxyurus
-----
Leucopsis
Chalcis
Cinips
Diplolepis
Ichneumon

-----
Evania
Foene
------
Urocere
Oryssus
Tenthredo
Clavellair

 

 

Sixth Order: Neuopterous Insects

 

Mandibles and jaws; four naked wings (membranous and reticulated); lengthened abdomen, lacking a sting or boring apparatus; six-footed larva; variation in the metamorphoses.

 

(1) Inactive nymphs

Perla
Nemoura
Frigania

Hemerobius
Ascalaphus
Myrmeleon

 

 

(2) Active nymphs

Nemopterea
Panorpa
Psocus
Termes
-----
Corydalis
Chauliodes

Raphidia
Ephemera
-----
Agrion
Aeshna
Libellula

 

Seventh Order: Orthopterous Insects

 

Mandibles, jaws, and galeae covering the jaws; two straight wings, longitudinally folded and cover by two almost membranous elytra; larvae as in the perfect insect, but having neither wings nor elytra; active nymph.

Grasshopper
Acheta
Locust
Truxalis
----
Mantis

Phasma
Spectrum
------
Cricket
Cockroach
Earwig

 

Eighth Order: Coleopterous Insects

 

Mandibles and jaws; two membranous wings, transversely folded in repose and under two hard or coriaceous shorter elytra; six-footed larvae; scaly head and eyeless; inactive nymph.

 

(1) Two or three parts in every tarsal

Pselaphus
-----

Lady-bird
Eumorphus

 

(2) Four parts in every tarsal

Erotylus
Cassida
Chrysomela
Galeruca
Leptura
Stencorus
Saperda
Necydalis
Callidium
Cerambix
Sprionus
Spondilus
-----
Bostrichus

Crioceris
Clythra
Griborus
-----
Mycetophagus
Trogossita
Cucujus
-----
Bruchus
Attelabus
Brentus
Curculio
Brachycerus

 

(3) Five parts in the tarsals of the first pair of feet and four on those of the third pair.

Opatrum
Tenebrio
Blaps
Pimelia
Sepidium
Scaurus
Erodius
Chiroscelis
-----
Helops
Diaperis
-----
Cistela

Momrdella
Rhipiphorus
Pyrochroa
Cossiphus
Notoxus
Lagria
Cercoma
Apalus
Horia
Mylabris
Cantharis
Meloe

 

(4) Five parts on every tarsal

Lymexylon
Telephorus
Malachius
Melyris
Lampyris 
Lycus
Omalysus
Drilus
-----
Melasis
Buprestis
CLick beetle
-----
Ptinus
Death-watch
Ptinus
-----
Staphylinus
Ips.
Dermestes
Anthrenus
Byrrhus
Hister.
Sphoeridinus
-----
Trox.
Cetonia

Oxyporus
Poederus
-----Cicindela
Elaphrus
Scarites
Manticora
Carabus
Dyticus
-----
Hydrophilus
Gyrinus
Dryops
Clerus.
-----
Necrophorus
Carrion-beetle
Nitidula
Goliathus
Cockchafter
Lethrus
Geotrupes
Copris
Scarabaeus
Passalus
Lucanus

 

ARACHNIDS

(Sixth Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals, always having articulated limbs and eyes in the head; they do not undergo a metamorphosis and never possess wings or elytra; stigmata and limited trachaea for respiration; a rudimentary circulation system; several fertilizations in a lifetime.

 

Observations

 

The arachnids, which in the order which we have established come after the insects, show clear progress in the perfecting of organic structure.

 

In fact, sexual reproduction manifests itself with the arachnids, for the first time, with all its capabilities, since these animals couple and reproduce several times in their lives, while in the insects, the sexual organs, like those of plants, can carry out only a single fertilization. Moreover, the arachnids are the first animals in which the circulation system begins to become sketched out. For according to the observations of Cuvier, we find in them a heart extending from which, on the sides, are two or three pairs of vessels.

 

The arachnids live in the air, like those insects which have reached the perfect condition But they do not undergo any metamorphosis, never have wings and elytra, something which is not the result of some abortion, and they remain, in general, hidden or living by themselves, feeding themselves on prey or by sucking blood.

 

In the arachnids, the method of respiration is still the same as in the insects, but the method is on the point of changing. For trachaea of arachnids are very limited (impoverished, as it were) and do not extend to all the parts of the body. These trachaea have been reduced to a small number of vesicles, something else Cuvier has taught us (Anatom., vol, IV, p. 419); and after the arachnids, this method of respiration does not occur again in any of the classes of animals which follow.

 

This class of animals needs to treated with care . Many of them are venemous, especially those which live in hot climates.

 

Table of Arachnids

 

First Order: Arachnids Pedipalyps

 

No antenna, only pedipalps; the head fused with the thorax; eight limbs

Mygale
Spider
Phrynus
Thelyphnus
Scorpion
-----
Pince
Galeodes
Faucheur

Trogul
Elais
Trombidium
-----
Hydrachna
Bdella
Mite
Nymphon
Pycnogonum

 

Second Order: Arachnids with Antenna

 

Two antennae; a head distinct from the thorax

Louse
Ricinus
-----
Forbicina
Podure

-----
Scolopendre
Scutigera
Julus (millipede)

 

Fourth Degree of Organic Structure

 

Nerves terminating in a longitudinal ganglionic chord or in a brain without a spinal chord; respiration with gills; arteries and veins for circulation.

 

[The Crustaceans, the Annelids, the Cirripeds and the Mollusks]

 

CRUSTACEANS

(Seventh Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals, having articulated bodies and limbs, a crustaceous skin, several pairs of jaws, eyes and antennae in the head; respiration by gills; a heart and vessels for circulation.

 

Observations

 

Some significant changes in the organic structure of the animals of this class indicate that in forming the crustaceans nature has succeeded in making considerable progress in the organic structure of animals.

 

First, the method of respiration is here entirely different from that used in the arachnids and insects. And this method, made up of organs called gills, is going to continue right up to the fish. Trachaea do not appear again, and the gills themselves will disappear when nature is able to create a cellular lung.

 

Then, the circulation (which in the arachnids consists of only a simple outline) is fully established in the crustaceans, where we see a heart and arteries for sending out blood to the different parts of the body and veins which bring this fluid back to the principal organ responsible for its motion.

 

We find again in the crustaceans the style of articulations which nature has universally used in the insects and the arachnids, to facilitate muscular movement with the help of indurations of the skin, but from this point on nature will abandon this method of setting up an organic structure which no longer will require it.

 

The majority of crustaceans live in water, either fresh or brackish or salt. Some nonetheless remain on the earth and breathe air with their gills. All of them feed only on animal material.

 

Table of Crustaceans

 

First Order: Sessile-Eyed Crustaceans

 

Sessile and immobile eyes

Wood-louse
Ligia
Asellus
Cyamus
Shrimp
Caprella
-----
Cyclops
Zoea

Cephaloculus
Amymone
Daphnia
Lunceus
Osole
Limulus
Coligus
Polyphemus

 

Second Order: Stalk Eyed Crustaceans

 

Two distinct eyes raised on mobile stalks

 

(1) Elongated tail, equipped with swimming blades or hooks or hairs

Branchiopod
Squilla
Palaemon
Galathea
Ecrevissa
Pagurus (hermit crab)
-----
Ranina

Crangon
Palinurus (rock lobster)
Scyllarus
Albunea
Hippia 
Corystes
Porcellana

 

(2) Short tail, bare, and held against the under part of the abdomen

Pinotheres
Leocosia
Arctopsis
Maia
-----
Orithyia
Podophtalmus
Portunus

Dorippe
Plagusia
Grapsus
Ocypode
Calappa
Hepatus
Dromia
Cancer

 

ANNELIDS

(Eighth class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals with an elongated body, which is soft and ringed laterally, rarely having eyes and a distinct head, and lacking articulated limbs. Arteries and veins for circulation; respiration by gills; a longitudinal ganglionic chord.

 

Observations

 

We see in the annelids that nature is forced to abandon the method of articulation which she has constantly used with the insects, arachnids, and crustaceans. Their bodies--elongated, soft, and for the most part composed of simple rings--gives these animals the appearance of being just as imperfect as the worms, with whom people have confused them. But since they have arteries and veins and breathe by gills, these animals, very distinct from the worms, must, along with the cirripeds, make the transition from the crustaceans to the mollusks.

 

They lack articulated limbs (2), and most of them have, on the side, bristles or bundles  which take the place of limbs. Almost all of them are suckers and feed themselves only on fluid material.

 

Table of Annelids

 

First Order: Cryptobranch Annelids

Planaria
Leech
Lernia
Clevella
-----

Furia (?)
Nais
Lumbricus
Thalassema

 

Second Order: Gymnobranch Annelids

Arenicola
Amphinoma
Aphrodite
Nereis
-----
Terebella
Amphitrite

Sabellaria
-----
Serpula
Spirorbis
Siliquaria
Dentaliium

 

Cirripeds

(Ninth Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous and testaceous animals without a head and eyes, having a mantle which covers the inside of the shell, articulated arms with a horny skin, and two pairs of jaws in the mouth; respiration by gills; a longitudinal ganglionic chord; vessels for circulation.

 

Observations

 

Although we know only a small numbers of general which are linked to this class, the characteristics of the animals which make up these genera are so remarkable that it is necessary that we distinguish them as making up a specific class.

 

The cirripeds have a shell, a mantle, and have no head or eyes. Thus they cannot be crustaceans. Their articulated arms mean that we cannot place them among the annelids. And their longitudinal ganglionic chord prevents us from combining them with the mollusks.

 

Table of Cirripieds

 

Tubicinella
Coronula

Balanus
Anatifa

 

Remarks: We see that the cirripeds still incline towards the annelids by their longitudinal ganglionic chord. But in these animals, nature is preparing itself to create the mollusks, because they already have, as do the latter, a mantle which covers the interior of their shell.

 

Mollusks

(Class Ten of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals, with a soft body (not articulated in its parts) and a variable mantle; respiration by very diversified gills; no spinal chord, no longitudinal ganglionic chord; nerves ending at an imperfect brain.

 

Most of them are enveloped in a shell; others have a shell more or less entirely enclosed in their interior; and still others have no shell at all.

 

Observations

 

The mollusks are the best organized of the animals without vertebrae, that is to say, those whose organic structure is is the most complex and which come closest to that of fish.

 

They make up a numerous class which ends the invertebrates and which is really distinguished from the other classes, since the animals which make it up have a nervous system, like many others, but are the only ones which have neither a longitudinal ganglionic chord nor a spinal chord.

 

Nature, at the point of starting to form the system of organic structure of the vertebrate animals, appears here to be preparing herself for this change. Thus the mollusks, which have no link any more to the style of articulation and of the attachment which a horny skin gives for the muscles of animals who have this feature, are very slow in the movements and appear, in this respect, more imperfectly structured than even the insects.

 

Finally, since the mollusks make the transition from invertebrates to vertebrate animals, their nervous system is intermediate, and displays neither the longitudinal ganglionic chord of the invertebrate animals with nerves nor the spinal chord of the vertebrate animals. This is eminently characteristic of them and clearly distinguishes them from the other invertebrates.

 

Table of Mollusks

 

Order One: Acephalic Mollusks

 

No head, no eyes, no organs for chewing; they reproduce without copulation; most of them have a shell with two valves which articulate with a hinge.

 

Brachiopods

Lingula
Terebratules
Orbicules

 

Ostracians

Radiolites
Calceola
Crania
Anomia
Placuna
Vulsella

Oyster
Gryphaea
Plicatula
Spondylus
Pecten

 

Byssifera

Houlette
Lima
Pinna
Perna
Malleus

Mytilus
Modiola (?)
Crenatula
Avicula
-----

 

Chamaceans

Etheria
Chama
Diceras

Corbula
Pandora
-----

 

Naiads

Mulette
Anodonta

 

Arcaceans

Nucula
Petunculus
Arca

Cucullaea
Trigonia
-----

 

Cardiads

Tridaena
Hippopus
Cardita

Isocardia
Cardium

 

Conchs

Venericardia
Venus
Cytherea
Donax
Tellina

Lucina
Cyclas
Galathea
Capsa

 

Mactraceans

Erycina
Ungulina
Crassatella

Lutraria
Mactra
-----

 

Myarians

Mya
Panorps
Anatina

 

Solenaceans

Glycimeria
Solen
Sanguinolaria

Petricola
Rupellaria
Saxicava

 

Pholadarians

Pholas
Teredo
Fistulana

Aspergillum
-----

 

Ascidians

Ascidia
Salpa
Mammaria

 

Order Two: Cephalic Mollusks

 

A distinct head, eyes and two or four tentacles in most, jaws or a proboscis by the mouth; reproduction by coupling; the shell in those which have one never consists of two articulated valves with a hinge.

 

(1)   Pteropods

 

Two opposed fins for swimming

Hylaea
Clio
Pneumoderma

 

(2) Gasteropods

 

(A) straight body, unified to the foot in all or almost all its length.

Tritonians

Glaucus
Aeolis
Scyllaea

Tritonia
Tethys
Doris

 

Phyllidians

Pleurobranchus
Phyllidia
Chiton

Patella
Fissurella
Emarginula

 

Laplysians

Laplysia 
Dolabella

Bullaea
Sigaretus

 

Limacians

Onchidium
Limax
Parmacella

Vitrina 
Testacella
-----

 

(B) Spiral body; no siphon

 

Colymaceans

Helix (snail)
Helicina
Bulimus

Amphibulimus
Agathina
Pupa

 

Orbaceans

Cyclostoma
Vivipara

Planorbis
Ampullaria

 

Auriculaceans

Auricula
Melanopsis

Melania
Limnaea

 

Neritaceans

Neritina
Navicella

Nerita
Natica

 

Stomataceans

Haliotis
Stomatia
Stomatella

 

Turbinaceans

Phasianella
Turbo
Monodonta
Dauphinula

Scalaria
turritella
Vermicularia(?)

 

Heteroclites

Volvaria
Bulla
Janthina

 

Calyptraceans

Crepidula
Calyptraea

Solarium
Trochus

 

(c) Spiral body, a siphon

 

Canalifera

Cerithiium
Pleurotoma
Turbinella
Fasciolaria

Pyrula
Fusus
Murex

 

Wing Shells

Rostellaria
Peteroceras

Strombus

 

Purpuraceans

Cassis
Harpa
Dolium
Terebra
Eburna

Buccinum
Concholepas
Monoceros
Purpura
Nassa

 

Columellarians

Cancellaria
Marginella
Colombella

Mitra 
Voluta

 

Convolutes

Ancilla
Oliva
Terebellum

Ovula
Cypraea
Conus

 

(3) Cephalopods

 

(A) with multilocular test 

 

Lenticulaceans

Miliola
Gyrongonita
Rotalia
Renulites

Discorbina
Lenticulina
Nummulites

 

Lituolaceans

Lituolites
Spirolinites
Spirula

Orthocerae
Hippurites
Belemnites

 

Nautilaceans

Baculites
Terrilites
Ammonoceras

Ammonites
Orbulites
Nautilus

 

(B) With unilocar test

 

Argonautaceans

Argonauta
Carinaria

 

(C) Without test

 

Sepialeans

Octopus
Calamary
Cuttle-fish

 

VERTEBRATES

 

They have a vertebral column made up of a multitude of short bones, articulated and arranged in a linear sequence. This column serves to hold up the body, establishes the basis of the skeleton, provides a sheath for the spinal chord, and terminates at the anterior end with a bony container which contains the brain.

 

FIFTH stage of Organic Structure

 

Nerves ending at a spinal column and at a brain which does not fill the skull cavity. The heart has one ventricle and cold blood.

[The Fish and the Reptiles]

 

The Fish

(Class Eleven of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals, vertebrate and with cold blood; living in water, breathing by gills; covered with a skin, either scaly or almost bare and viscous, and having for movement only membranous fins, held up by a bony or cartilaginous framework.

 

Observations

 

The organic structure of fish is much more perfected than that of mollusks and of the animals of the preceding classes, since they are the first animals which have a vertebral column, the outline of a skeleton, a spinal chord, and a skull enclosing the brain. They are also the first in which the muscular system derives its points of attachment from interior parts.

 

However, their respiratory organs are still analogous to that in the mollusks, cirripeds, annelids, and crustaceans. And like all the animals of the preceding classes, they still lack a voice and have no lids on the eyes.

 

The form of their body is appropriate for their need to swim, but they keep the paired symmetrical shape of their parts (which began in the insects); finally, with them, as well as with the animals of the three following classes, the style of articulation is only on the inside and only occurs in the parts of their skeleton.

 

Note. For the creation of the table of vertebrates, I used the work of Dumeril, entitled Analytical Zoology, and I permitted myself only a few changes in the arrangements of items.

 

Table of Fish

 

Order One: Cartilaginous Fish

 

Soft vertebral column, like cartilage; no true ribs in many of them.

 

(1) No opercule and no membrane over the gills

 

Trematopneans

Respiration by round holes

 

1. Cyclostomes

Gasterobranchus (hagfish, myxine)
Lamprey

 

2. Plagiostomes

Torpedo
Skate
Rhinobatus

Squatina
Squalus
Aodon

 

(2) No opercule over the gills, but a membrane

 

Chismopneans

Openings of the gills by slits on the sides of the neck; four paired fins

 

3. . . . . . . . . . . .

Batrachus
Lophius

Balistes
Chimaera

 

(3) An operculum above the gills but no membrane

 

Eleutheropomes

Four paired fins; mouth under the muzzle

 

4. . . . . . . . . . . . 

Polyodon
Pegasus
Accipenser (Sturgeon)

 

(4) An operculum and a membrane over the gills

 

Teleobranches

complete gills, having an operculum and a membrane

 

5. Aphyostomes

Macrorhyncus
Solenostoma
Centriscus (snipe fish)

 

6. Pteroptera

Cyclopterus (lump sucker)
Lepadogaster

 

7. Osteoderms

Ostracion
Tetraodon
Ovoidea

Didon
Spheroidon
Syngnathus

 

Order Two: Bony Fish

 

Vertebral column with inflexible bony vertebrae

 

(1) An operculum and a membrane over the gills

 

Holobranchs

 

Apode Holobranchs

 

No paired lower fins

 

8. Peropterous holobranchs

Coecilia
Monoopterus
Leptocephalus
Gymnotus
Trichurus

Notopterus
Ophisurus
Apteronotus
Regalecus

 

9. Pantopterous holobranchs

Muraena
Ammodytes
Ophidium
Macrognathus
Xiphias

Anarrhichas
Comephorus
Stromataeus
Rhombus

 

Jugular Holobranchs

 

Paired lower fins situated under the throat, anterior to the thoracic fins

 

10. Auchenopterous Holobranchs

Murenoid
Calliomorus
Uranscopus
Weaver
Cod

Batrachoides
Blenny
Oligopod
Kurtus
Chrysostrome

 

Thoracic Holobranchs

 

Paired lower fins situated under the pectorals

 

11. Petalosome Holobranchs

Lepidopus
Cepola
Taenoid

Bostrichthys
Bostrichoid
Gymnetrus

 

12 Plecopod Holobranchs

Gobius
Gobioid

 

13. Eleutheropod Holobranchs

Gobiomore
Gobiomoroid
Echeneis

 

14. Atractosome Holobranchs

Scomber
Scomberoid
Caranx
Trachinote
Caranxomorus
Caesio
Caesiomorus

Scomberomorus
Gasterosteus
Centropodus
Centronotus
Lepisacanthus
Istiophore
Pomatome

 

15 Leipome Holobranchs

Histula
Coris
Gomphosus
Osphronemus
Trichopod
Monodactyl
Plectorhincus
Paogonias
Labrus

Chilinus
Cheilodipteron
Ophicephalus
Hologymnosa
Sparus
Dipterodon
Cheilio
Mullet

 

16. Osteostome Holobranchs

Scarus
Ostorhincus
Leignathus

 

17. Lophionotous Holobranchs

Coryphaena
Emipteronota
Coryphaenoid

Taenionotus
Centrolophus
Eques

 

18. Cephalotous Holobranchs

Gobiesox
Aspidophora
Aspidophoroides

Cottus
Scorpaena

 

19. Dactylous Holobranchs

Dactylopterus
Prionotus

Trigla
Peristedion

 

20. Heterosome Holobranchs

Pleuronectes
Achirus

 

21. Acanthopome Holobranchs

Lutjanus
Centropomus
Bodianus
Taenianotus

Sciaena
Micropterus
Holocentrum
Perca

 

22. Leptosome Holobranchs

Chetodon
Acanthinion
Chetodipteron
Pomacentrus
Pomadasis
Pomacanthus
Holacanthus
Enoplosus
Glyphisodon

Acanthurus
Aspisurus
Acanthopod
Selene
Argyriosus
Zeus
Galeoides
Chrysostose
Capros

 

Abdominal Holobrachs

 

Paired lower fins placed a little in front of the anus

 

23. Siphonostome Holobranchs

Fistularia
Aulostoma
Solenostoma

 

24 Cylindrosome Holobranchs

Cobitis
Misgurnus
Anableps
Fondulus
Columbrine

Amia
Butirinus
Tripteronotus
Ompolk

 

25. Oplophore Holobranchs

Silurus
Macropteronotus
Malapterurus
Pimelodus
Doras
Pogonathus
Cataphractus
Plotosus

Agenicsus
Macrorhamphosus
Centranodon
Loricaria
Hypostome
Corydoras
Tachysurus

 

26. Dimerid Holobranchs

Cirrhites
Cheilodactylus

Polynemus
Polydactylus

 

27. Lepidome Holobranchs

Mugil
Mugiloid

Chanos
Mugilomorus

 

28. Gymnopome Holobranch

Argentina
Atherina
Hydrargyrus
Stolenphorus
Buro
Clupea
Mystus

Clupanodon
Gasteropleucus
Mene
Dorsuaria
Xystera
Cyprinus

 

29. Dermopterous Holobranchs

Salmo
Osmeris
Corregonus

Sharacinus
Serrasalmo

 

30. Siagonote Holobranchs

Elops
Megalops
Esox
Synodon

Sphyraena
Lepisosteus
Polypterus
Scombresox

 

(2) An opercule over the gills but no membrane.

 

STERNOPTYGES

 

31. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sternoptyx

 

(3) No opercule over the gills, but a membrane

 

32. . . . . . . . . . . .

Mormyrus
Stylophorus

 

(4) No operculum nor membrane over the gills; no paired lower fins

 

OPHICHTHIANS

 

33. . . . . . . . . . . 

Unibranch aperture
Sphagebranchus

Murenophis
Gymnomuraena

 

Remarks.  Since the skeleton started to form itself in the fish, those called cartilaginous are probably the least perfected fish, and consequently the most imperfect of all must be the gasterobranch which Linnaeus, under the name myxine, considered a worm.  Thus, in the order which we are following, the genus gasterobranch must be the first of the fish, because it is the least perfected.

 

REPTILES

 

Viviparous animals, with vertebra and cold blood; breathing incompletely by a lung, at least in their later life; with a smooth skin or one covered in scales or a bony shell.

 

Observations

 

In the reptiles some progress in the perfectioning of organic structures is very noticeable, if we compare these animals with the fish.  For among them we find for the first time the lung, which we know is the most perfect respiratory organ, because it is the same as what is in man.  But here it is only sketchy, and several reptiles do not even have one in the early part of their lives.  In truth, they breathe only incompletely, for only a part of the blood is sent to the parts which go by the lung.

 

It is also among them that we see for the first time in a distinct way four limbs which are part of the design of vertebrate animals and which are appendages of (or depend upon) the skeleton.

 

Table of Reptiles

 

First ORDER: BATRACHIAN REPTILES

Heart with one auricle; bare skin; two or four legs; gills in the first stage of life; no coupling

 

Urodela

Siren
Proteus

Triton
Salamander

 

Anura

Tree-frog
Frog

Pipa
Toad

 

SECOND  ORDER: OPHIDIAN REPTILES (SNAKES)

 

Heart with one auricle; elongated body, narrow and without limbs or fins; no eyelids

 

Homoderms

Coecilia
Amphisboena
Acrochordus

Ophisaurus
Slow-worm
Sea snake

 

Heteroderms

Crotalus
Scytale
Boa
Erpeton

Erix
Viper
Coluber
Platurus

 

THIRD ORDER: SAURIAN REPTILES

 

Heart with two auricles; scaly body furnished with four limbs; claws on the digits; teeth in the jaw bones.

 

Tereticauds

Calcides
Scincus
Gecko
Anolis
Dragon

Agama
Lacerta
Iguana
Stellio
Chamaeleon

 

Planicauds

Uroplates
Tupinambis
Basiliseus

Lophura
Dracaena
Crocodile

 

FOURTH ORDER: CHELONIAN REPTILES

 

Heart with a double auricle; body equipped with a carapace and four limbs; no teeth in the jaw bones

Chelonia
Chelys

Emys
Tortoise

 

 

SIXTH DEGREE OF ORGANIC STRUCTURE

 

Nerves ending at a spinal chord and a brain which fills the cranial case; heart with two ventricles and warm blood.

 

[Birds and Mammals]

 

BIRDS

(Thirteenth Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Oviparous animals, vertebrates and with warm blood; breathing completely by adhering and pierced lungs; four articulated limbs, two of which are shaped as wings; feathers on the skin.

 

Observations

 

The birds certainly have an organic structure more perfect than the reptiles and all the animals of the preceding classes, because they have warm blood, a heart with two ventricles, and their brain fills the cranial case, characteristics which they share only with the more perfect animals which make up the last class.

 

However, birds evidently form only the penultimate rung of the animal ladder, for they are less perfect than the mammals, since they are still oviparous, lack mammary glands, lack a diaphragm, a bladder, and so on, and since they have fewer faculties.

 

In the table which follows, one can notice that the four first orders include the birds whose young cannot walk or feed themselves when they hatch and, by contrast,  the three last orders include the birds whose young move and feed themselves as soon as they emerge from the egg.  Finally, the seventh order, that of the palimpeds, seems to me to show birds who, through their affinities, come closest to the animals of the class which follows.

 

Table of Birds

 

First order: climbers

 

Two digits in front and two at the back.

 

Levirostrate Climbers

Parrot
Cockatoo
Macaw
Pull-bird

Touraco
Trogon
Musophaga
Toucan

 

Cuneirostrate Climbers

Woodpecker
Wryneck
Jacamar

Ani
Cuckoo

 

SECOND ORDER: RAPTORS

 

A single digit at the back; anterior digits completely free; hook beak and claws

 

Nocturnal Raptors

Owl
Eagle-owl
Surnia

 

Bare-Neck Raptors

Condor
Vulture

 

Feather Necked Raptors

Griffon
Secretary-bird
Eagle

Buzzard
Goshawk
Falcon

 

THIRD ORDER: PASSERES

 

A single digit at the back; the two front external digits are united; the tarsus of medium height

 

Crenirostrate Passeres

Tanagra
Shrike
Flycatcher

Ampelis
Thrush

 

Dentirostrate Passeres

Hornbill
Motmot
Phytotoma

 

Plenirostrate Passeres

Grackle
Bird-of-Paradise
Roller

Crow
Pie

 

Conirostrate Passeres

Ox-pecker
Blaucopis
Oriole
Cacicus
Starling

Crossbill
Brosbeak
Colius
Finch
Bunting

 

Subulirostrate Passares

Mannakin
Titmouse

Lark
Wagtail

 

Planirostrate Passares

Martin
Swallow
Nightjar

 

Tenuirostrate Passares

Kingfisher
Tody
Nuthatch
Orthorincus

Bee-eater
Humming-bird
Creeper
Hoopoe

 

FOURTH ORDER: COLUMBAE

 

Soft flexible beak, flat at the base; nostrils covered by a soft skin; wings appropriate for flight; brood of two eggs

 

Pigeon

 

FIFTH ORDER: GALLINACEANS

 

Solid beak, horny, rounded at the base; brood of more than two eggs

 

Alectride Gallinaceans

Bustard
Peacock
Tetras
Pheasant

Guinea-fowl
Curassow
Penelope
Turkey

 

Brachypterous Gallinaceans

Dodo
Cassowary

Rhea
Ostrich

 

SIXTH ORDER: WADERS

 

Very long tarsus, without feathers right up to the leg; external digits united at their base (birds of the water's edge)

 

Pressirostrate Waders

Jacana
Rail
Oyster-catcher

Moorhen
Coot

 

Cultrirostrate Waders

Bittern
Heron
Stork

Crane
Mycteria
Tantalus

 

Teretirostrate Waders

Avocet
Curlew
Woodcock


Dunlin
Plover

     

Latirostrate Waders

Boatbill
Spoonobill
Pheonicopterus

 

SEVENTH ORDER: PALIMPEDS

 

Digits linked by large membranes; tarsus not very high (aquatic animals, swimmers)

 

Penniped Palimpeds

Anhinga
Phaeton
Gannet

Frigate-bird
Cormorant
Pelican

 

Serrirostrate Palmipeds

Merganser
Duck
Flamingo

 

Longipen Palmipeds

Gull
Albatross
Petrel

Avocet
Tern
Scissor-bill

 

Brevipen Palimpeds

Grebe
Guuillemot
Auk

Penguin
King-penguin

 

MONOTREMES (Geoff.)

 

Animals intermediate between the birds and the mammals; these animals are quadrupeds, without mammary glands, without teeth in the jaws, without lips, and with only one orifice for the genital organs, feces and urine; their body is covered with hair or bristles

Ornithorhynchus
Echidna

 

Note: I have already spoken of these animals in Chapter VI, where I showed that they are neither mammals, nor birds, nor reptiles.

 

MAMMALS

(Fourteenth Class of the Animal Kingdom)

 

Viviparous animals with mammary glands; four articulated limbs, or only two; respiration entirely by lungs which are not pierced on the outside; hair on some parts of the body.

 

Observations

 

In the order of nature, which clearly proceeds from the simplest towards the most complex in its workings on living bodies, the mammals necessarily make up the last class of the animal kingdom.

 

This class effectively includes the most perfect animals, those which have the most faculties, the most intelligence, and finally, the most complex organic structure.

 

These animals whose structure comes closest the that of man display for this reasons a combination of senses and faculties more perfect than all the others.  They are the only ones which are truly viviparous and which have mammary glands to suckle their young.

 

Thus, the mammals display the most significant complexity in the organic structure of animals, and represent the limit in the perfectioning and in the number of faculties which nature, with the help of this organic structure, was able to give to living bodies.  Therefore, they must come at the end of the immense series of existing animals.

 

Table of Mammals

 

FIRST ORDER: EXUNGULATE MAMMALS

 

Only two limbs; they are in front, short, flattened, appropriate for swimming, and display neither nails nor hoofs.

 

Cetaceans

Right-whale
Rorqual
Physale
Cachalot
Sperm-whale

Narwhal
Anarnak
Delphinopterus
Dolphin
Hyperodon

 

SECOND ORDER: AMPHIBIAN MAMMALS

 

Four limbs; two short ones in front, as fins with unguiculate digits; the back two are directed towards the back or united with the extremity of the body, which is tail-like (as in fish)

Seal
Walrus

Dugong
Manatee

 

Observation

 

This order is placed here only because of the relationship of the general form of the animals which make it up.  See my  observations on p. 143.

 

THIRD ORDER: UNGULATE MAMMALS

 

Four limbs which are suitable only for moving; their digits are enclosed entirely at the ends by a horn which is called a hoof.

 

Solipeds

 

Horse

 

Ruminants or Bisulcates

Ox
Antelope
Goat
Sheep

Deer
Giraffe
Camel
Musk-deer

 

Pachiderms

Rhinoceros
Hyrax
Tapir

Pig
Elephant
Hippopotamus

 

 

FOURTH ORDER: UNGUICULATE MAMMALS

 

Four limbs; flat or pointed nails at the end of their digits, which are not enclosed.

 

Tardigrades

 

Sloth

 

Edentates

Ant-eater
Pangolin

Aardvark
Armadillo

 

Rodents

Kangaroo
Hare
Coendu
Porcupine
Lemur
Phascolomys
Hydromys
Beaver
Cavy

Spalax
Squirrel
Dormouse
Hamster
Marmot
Vole
Musk-rat
Rat

 

Pedimana

Opossum
Bandicoot
Dasyurus

Wombat
Coescoes
Phalanger

 

Plantigrades

Mole
Shrew
Bear
Kinkajou

Badger
Coati
Hedgehog
Tenrec

 

Digitgrades

Otter
Mongoose
Skunk
Weasel

Cat
Civet
Hyaena
Dog

 

Chiroptera

Galeopithecus
Rhinolophus
Phyllostome

Noctilio
Bat
Flying-fox

 

Quadrumanes

Galago
Tarsius
Loris
Makia
Indris
Guenon

Baboon
Sapajou
Cebus
African-Baboon
Pongo
Orang

 

Remark.  According to the order which I have just presented, the family of quadrumanes is thus made up of the most perfect known animals, above all the last genera of this family.  In effect, the genus Orang (pithecus) ends the entire order, just as the monad began it.  What a difference with respect to organic structure and faculties between the animals of these two genera!

 

Naturalists who have considered man solely with respect to his organic structure have formed out of the six known varieties a particular genus, so that man alone makes up a separate family, characterized in the following way:

 

BIMANES

 

Mammals with separate limbs with nails; three types of teeth and opposable thumbs only on the hands

 

Man

 




Varieties

Caucasian
Hyperborean
Mongolian
American
Malayan
Ethiopian or Negro

 

The name bimanes has been given to this family because, in effect, only human hands display a thumb separated and opposing the digits, while in the quadrumanes, the hands and the feet show this same characteristic, so far as the thumb is concerned.

 

Some Observations Relevant to Men

 

If man were distinguished from animals only with respect to his organic structure, it would be easy to show that the characteristics of organic structure which one would use to form a separate family (with its varieties) are all the products of ancient changes in his actions and habits which he acquired and what have become special to the individuals of his species.

 

In fact, if some race or other of quadrumanes, above all the most perfected among them, were to lose (by necessity of circumstance or some other cause) the habit of climbing up trees and grasping branches with their feet, as with their hands, to hang on there, and if the individuals of this race, over a succession of generations, were forced to use their feet only for movement and stopped using their hands as feet, there is no doubt, after the observations revealed in the preceding chapter, that these quadrumanes would finally be transformed into bimanes and that the thumbs on their feet would cease to be separated from the digits, since these feet serve them only for movement.

 

Moreover, if the individuals I am talking about, moved by the need to grow higher so as to see all at once far and wide, were forced to hold themselves upright and acquired from that a constant habit from one generation to the next, there is no doubt once again that their feet would have insensibly taken on a shape appropriate for holding them in an upright position, that their limbs would acquire calves, and that these animals could only move around with difficulty on their hands and feet at the same time.

 

Finally, if these same individual were to stop using their jaws as weapons for biting, tearing, or seizing, or like pincers for cutting grass to eat, and if they were used only for chewing, once more there is no doubt that their facial angle would become more open, that their muzzle would shorten more and more, and would be finally effaced and they would have vertical incisor teeth.

 

Suppose now that a race of quadrumanes, like the most perfect, having acquired by constant habits in all its individuals the form which I have just referred to and the faculty of standing erect and walking upright and that later this race succeeded in dominating the other races of animals.  In such a case one will see the following:

 

1. This race, more perfect in its capabilities,  having because of these finally come to master the others, will spread itself out over the surface of the earth into all places which are suitable for it.

 

2. This race will have chased off the other prominent races and, in the event of a dispute about what the good the earth offers, it would have forced them to take refuge in places which this race does not occupy.

 

3. By harming the large multiplication of the races close to it in their affinities and having relegated them to the woods or other deserted places, this race will have stopped the progress in the perfection of their faculties; while that race itself,  capable of extending itself everywhere, will multiply there without obstacles from the others and live there in numerous troops; it will have successively created new needs which will stimulate its industry and gradually perfect its methods and capabilities.

 

4. Finally, this preeminent race, having acquired an absolute supremacy over all the others, will have succeeded at putting between itself and the most perfect animals some difference and, in one way or another, a considerable distance.

 

Thus, the race of the most perfect quadarumanes will have been able to become dominant, to change its habits as a result of the absolute empire which it will have taken over the others and of new needs, and from that to acquire progressively modifications in its organic structure and numerous new capabilities, to restrict the most perfect of the other races to the state at which they have arrived; and to introduce very remarkable distinctions between itself and the latter.

 

The Orang of Angola (Simia troglodytes, Lin.) is the most perfect of animals: it is much more so than the orang of the Indies (Simia satyrus, Lin.), which has been called the orang-outang.  Nevertheless, with respect to their organic structure, they are both far inferior to man in coporeal faculties and in intelligence (3).  These animals hold themselves upright on many occasions, but since they have not developed this into a sustained habit, their organic structure has not been sufficiently modified, so that standing up is a very inconvenient and uncomfortable condition for them.

 

We know (by accounts of travelers) above all in connection with the orang of the Indies, that when a pressing danger obliges them to run away, the animal immediately falls back onto its four limbs.  According to us, that reveals the true origin of this animal, because it is forced to abandon this strange bearing which is foreign to it.

 

Without doubt this upright bearing is foreign to the animal, since it makes less use of it when it moves about .  Hence its organic structure is less appropriate for such a stance.  But because that stance is  easier for man, is it entirely natural to him?

 

For man who, through the sustained habits of the individuals in his species over a long sequence of generations, can hold himself upright as he moves around, this stance is nonetheless a tiring state for him, a condition in which he is not able to sustain himself except for a limited time and with aid of the contractions of several of his muscles.

 

If the verbebral column of the human body were to form the axis of the body and to hold the head at equilibrium, as well as the other parts, man would be able to be in a state of repose while upright.  Now, we all know that that is not the case, that the head does not move itself at the body's centre of gravity, that the chest and the stomach, as well as the viscera which these cavities enclose, weigh down almost totally on the front part of the vertebral column, that this column itself rests upon an oblique base, and so on.  Thus, as Richerand observes, it is necessary that while man is standing, an active power constantly keep watch to prevent the falls which the weight and the distribution of the parts always tend to encourage in the body.

 

After having developed the matters relevant to the stance of man, the same scholar explained himself as follows: "The relative weights of the head, the abdominal and thoracic viscera thus tend to pull forward that line, as a result of which all the parts of the body weigh on the plane which maintains it, a line which should be exactly perpendicular to this plane so that the stance is perfect.  The following fact lends support to this assertion. I have observed that the children whose head is voluminous, the belly jutting forward, and the viscera overfull with fat accustom themselves to standing upright with difficulty.  It is hardly at the end of their second year when they dare to trust their own powers.  They remain subject to frequent falls and have a natural tendency to reassume the condition of a quadruped." Physiology, vol. II, p. 268.

 

This arrangement of parts which establishes the stance of man is an active state and thus tiring (rather than being a relaxed state).  Hence, it would reveal in man an origin analogous to that of the other mammals, if his organic structure alone were taken into considerations.

 

Now, in order to follow, in all its points, the hypothesis presented from the start of these observations, it is appropriate to add the following considerations.

 

The individuals of the dominant race we are talking about spread out into all the habitable places suitable for them.  Having considerably multiplied their needs as the societies which they formed became more numerous they would have had to by the same process multiply their ideas and thus to have felt the need to communicate with those like them.  We may imagine that from this resulted the necessity for them to increase and to vary to the same extent the signs appropriate for the communication of these ideas.  Thus, it is evident that the individuals of this race would have had to make continual effort to create, multiply, and vary sufficiently the signs which their ideas and numerous needs rendered essential.

 

This is not the case with other animals.  For although the most perfect among them, like the quadrumanes, live for the most part in groups, since the remarkable supremacy of the race we are talking about, they have remained without progressing in the perfectioning of their faculties, having been chased away everywhere and relegated to wilderness areas, deserts usually limited in extent, where, unhappy and restless, they are forced continuously to flee and hide.  In this situation, these animals no longer form new needs, acquire new ideas.  Their ideas remain few and do not change.  And among these ideas there are very few which they would need to communicate to other individuals of the same species.  Thus, they need only very few different signs to make themselves understood to those like them. Hence,  some movements of the body or some of its parts, a few hissings and cries varied by simple vocal inflections are enough for them.

 

By contrast, the individuals of the dominant race already mentioned, having had a need to multiply the signs to communicate quickly their ideas (which have become more and more numerous), and not resting content with pantomime signs or the possible inflections of their voice, in order to represent this multitude of signs which has become necessary would have succeeded, by different efforts, in forming articulated sounds.  At first they would have used only a small number, combined with the inflections of their voice.  Afterwards, they would have increased them, varied them, and perfected them, according to the growth of their needs and to the extent that they would have made more effort to produce them.  In fact, the habitual exercise of the throat, tongue, and lips to articulate sounds would have really developed this faculty in them.

 

From that would come, for this particular race, the origin of the admirable capability of talking.  And since the distance between places where the individuals making up this race would have widened and encouraged the corruption of the signs agreed upon in order to convey each idea, from that would have originated languages, which have been diversified everywhere.

 

Thus, in this matter, needs alone would have achieved everything.  They would have given birth to efforts, and the organs appropriate to the articulation of sounds would have developed by their habitual use.

 

Such might be the reflections which one could make if man, considered here as the preeminent race in question, were not distinguished from animals except by the characteristics of his organic structure and if his origin were not different from theirs.

 

Notes to Section Eight

 

(1)   See the voyage of the Young Anacharsis, by J. J. Barthelemy, vol. V, p. 353 and 354. [Back to Text]

 

(2) In order to perfect the organs of movement for the animals, nature had to leave off the system of articulated limbs, which are not the result of a skeleton, in order to establish the system of four limbs dependent on an interior skeleton which is unique to the most perfect animals. This is what nature has carried out in the annelids and the mollusks, where she has set about preparing the methods to begin, in the fish, the organic structure specific to vertebrate animals. Thus, in the annelids, she has abandoned articulated limbs, and in the mollusks has done even more: she has ceased to use a longitudinal ganglionic chord. [Back to Text]

 

(3) See in my Recherches sur les Corps vivans, p. 136, some observations on the Orang of Angola. [Back to Text]

 

 

END OF THE FIRST PART 

 

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