Friedrich Nietzsche



Last revised November 2013.


Translated by Ian Johnston, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada


Students, teachers, artists, and members of the general public may download and distribute this text without permission and without charge. They may also freely edit the text for their own purposes. All commercial use of this translation, however, is forbidden without the permission of the translator. For comments and questions, please contact Ian Johnston.


For a Rich Text Version (Word) of this text, please use the following link: Beyond Good and Evil [RTF]




This translation is an extensively revised and corrected version of an earlier translation (2009). It is based on Nietzsche’s original German text (1886), the only one published in his lifetime and under his direct supervision. The German edition published in 1900, the year of Nietzsche’s death, contains a few minor parenthetic additions to that original text, none of which is of any importance. These have not been included in the main text.


Nietzsche frequently uses italics to emphasize a word or phrase in his text. These have all been preserved. I have also italicized all foreign (i.e., non-German) words in the text (e.g., a priori, esprit, niaiserie, and so on) and all book titles (for both of which Nietzsche uses a normal font). I have also used italics for all explanatory words and phrases inserted in the text and for the occasional insertion of Nietzsche’s original German phrasing into the English text (all such insertions are in square brackets).


In the text I have translated Nietzsche’s quotations from foreign languages into English and placed the original quotation in an endnote.


Nietzsche’s punctuation is often quite idiosyncratic, but it is an important feature of his style (especially his use of dashes, ellipsis dots, and question marks). I have retained most of it, as best I can, in order to convey this aspect of his style. But in some places I have not followed it faithfully.


The endnotes, which provide information about people or quotations mentioned in the text, have been provided by the translator.


Beyond Good and Evil, one of the most important works of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), was first published in 1886. For a very brief introduction to Nietzsche see the section on the Life and Work of Friedrich Nietzsche at the end of this translation.




Part One: On the Prejudices of Philosophers
Part Two: The Free Spirit     
Part Three: The Religious Nature  
Part Four: Aphorisms and Interludes
Part Five: The Natural History of Morals
Part Six: We Scholars
Part Seven: Our Virtues
Part Eight: Peoples and Fatherlands
Part Nine: What is Noble?  




Ian Johnston is an Emeritus Professor at Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Columbia. He is the author of The Ironies of War: An Introduction to Homer’s Iliad and of Essays and Arguments: A Handbook for Writing Student Essays. He also translated a number of works, including the following:

Aeschylus, Oresteia (Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, Eumenides)
Aeschylus, Persians
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound
Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes
Aeschylus, Suppliant Women
Aristophanes, Birds
Aristophanes, Clouds
Aristophanes, Frogs
Aristophanes, Knights
Aristophanes, Lysistrata
Aristophanes, Peace
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Abridged)
Cuvier, Discourse on the Revolutionary Upheavals on the Surface of the Earth
Descartes, Discourse on Method
Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy
Diderot, A Conversation Between D’Alembert and Diderot
Diderot, D’Alembert’s Dream
Diderot, Rameau’s Nephew
Euripides, Bacchae
Euripides, Electra
Euripides, Hippolytus
Euripides, Medea
Euripides, Orestes
Homer, Iliad (Complete and Abridged)
Homer, Odyssey (Complete and Abridged)
Kafka, Metamorphosis
Kafka, Selected Shorter Writings
Kant, Universal History of Nature and Theory of Heaven
Kant, On Perpetual Peace
Lamarck, Zoological Philosophy, Volume I
Lucretius, On the Nature of Things
Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy
Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil
Nietzsche, Genealogy of Morals
Nietzsche, On the Uses and Abuses of History for Life
Ovid, Metamorphoses
Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men [Second Discourse]
Rousseau, Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts [First Discourse]
Rousseau, Social Contract
Sophocles, Antigone
Sophocles, Ajax
Sophocles, Electra
Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus
Sophocles, Oedipus the King
Sophocles, Philoctetes
Wedekind, Castle Wetterstein
Wedekind, Marquis of Keith.


Most of these translations have been published as books or audiobooks (or both)—by Richer Resources Publications, Broadview Press, Naxos, Audible, and others.


Ian Johnston maintains a web site where texts of these translations are freely available to students, teachers, artists, and the general public. The site includes a number of Ian Johnston’s lectures on these (and other) works, handbooks, curricular materials, and essays, all freely available.

The addresses where these texts are available are as follows:


For comments and questions, please contact Ian Johnston.